Fauna and Flora

Updated: Jan 17



Editor's Note


This e-book shows a little of the natural resources that make up our beautiful Salinópolis.


Understanding how living beings survive and perpetuate their species is fundamental to harmony on a preserved and prosperous planet.


See what we at Solar are doing to contribute to a more sustainable planet: Eco-tourism tours, 100% solar energy generation, treatment and reuse of sewage water through E.T.E. (Sewage Treatment Plant) and transformation of organic waste into gas used in the kitchen.


I hope you enjoy this content and love nature even more.



Summary



1. Arapepó River

2. Red Mangrove

3. Siriuba Mangrove

4. White Mangrove

5. Button Mangrove

6. Cormorant

7. Woodpecker

8. Peregrine Falcon

9. Maçarico

10. Spoonbill

11. Fisherman Martin

12. Great Egret

13. Little White Heron

14. Tricolored Heron

15. Little Blue Heron

16. Mangrove Saracura

17. North Carcará Hawk

18. Seagull

19. Scarlet Ibis

20. Maguari

21. Japu

22. Cownose Stingray

23. Puffer Fish

24. Catfish

25. Tralhoto

26. Sardine

27. Crab

28. Mangrove Crab

29. Aratu

30. Red aratu

31. Tide Flame Crab

32. Hermit crab

33. Sea Snails

34. Vongli

35. Oyster

36. Barnacle

37. Turu

38. Iguana

39. Raccoon

40. Corral

41. Sulfurous Mud


Arapepó River



It starts in front of the city, between Maçarico beach and Ponta do Espadarte, passing under the Atalaia bridge and ending in the village of Cuiarana.


Its salt water by the Atlantic Ocean and is influenced by the Pará River from March to May, getting to be sweetened.


The name Arapepó, given by the Tupinambá Indians, means crown. With the influence of low tide, several sand crowns are formed along its entire length.


This river is the enabler of the great diversity of the fauna and flora of Salinópolis, which guarantees the livelihood of many families that make their living from tourism and fishing.


Red Mangrove



The tree's name is given because, when its bark is scraped, it presents a reddish color typical of the species.


The Indians used this paint to paint themselves on festive and war days.


Siriúba Mangrove


Due to its large and hollow trunk, the Indians used it to make a musical instrument called the curimbó.


Curimbó is used to beat the contagious rhythm of Pará, known as Carimbó.



White Mangrove



It mainly inhabits the interior of the mangroves, places further away from the coast.


Its flowers are whitish with different shades of green.


Its wood is somewhat greenish, in addition to dark brown, it is quite resistant and withstands different conditions.


Button Mangrove



Native to Brazil, it grows specifically in coastal dunes, mainly in mangrove areas.


The fruits of this plant float in water when it is in mangrove environments. This ends up being a great advantage so that the seeds can disperse more easily.



Cormorant



Water bird, dives in search of fish and remains underwater for a long time, going to appear again right in front, showing only its neck sticking out of the water. To make your dives easier, their feathers are completely soaked, eliminating the air that gets between them.


Almost always seen in large flocks flying close to water, in a “V” formation.

They appear in large flocks in Salinas from March to May.



Woodpecker



Small to medium in size, with colored feathers and, in most males, with a red crest.


Nests are dug into tree trunks as high as possible to protect against predators.


From 4 to 5 eggs are hatched by the female and also by the male for 20 days.

They feed mainly on insect larvae that are inside tree trunks, enlarging the cavity where the larvae are found with their powerful beak and introducing their long, moistened tongue.


Peregrine Falcon



Medium-sized diurnal bird of prey.


The species prefers habitats in mountainous or coastal areas.


Currently, the bird is considered the fastest animal in the world, reaching around 320 km/h or more.


The longest known life expectancy of a captive peregrine falcon is 25 years.


Maçarico



It occurs in northeastern Canada in the Quebec and Labrador regions. In winter it migrates to the coastal region of the Atlantic Ocean, from the United States of America to Brazil, normally found in mangroves and muddy beaches.


They push their long beaks deep into sand or mud in a pumping process, in a way that this action has often been compared to running a sewing machine.


Their diet consists of molluscs, marine worms, insects and other opportunistic foods like horseshoe crab eggs. In the Arctic, insects, spiders and other related invertebrates become its predominant food source.



Spoonbill



It sifts the water, shaking and dipping the beak in search of food, including fish, small amphibians, insects, shrimp, molluscs and crustaceans.


The presence of some substances in these food items, called carotenoids, give the spoonbill a pink coloration, which becomes more intense during the reproductive season.


They have an elaborate nuptial parade, which includes beak taps and mutual offerings of twigs.



Fisherman Martin



It is a natural species from the region of Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, in the extreme south of America.


Such birds can measure up to 42 centimeters in length, having a bluish-gray head and back, white neck and neck, brown undersides.



Great Egret



It feeds mainly on fish, but has been seen eating almost anything that can fit in its beak.


It is very intelligent and can use pieces of bread as bait to attract the fish it feeds on.


At the time of reproduction, individuals of both sexes have long feathers on the back called egretas. These egretas have long been fashionable as an adornment for hats and clothing in Europe, and the demand for feathers led hundreds of thousands of herons to death right in their reproductive years.



Little White Heron



Measures from 51 to 61 centimeters in length.


The plumage is rich in powder, which is produced by powder plumes concentrated on the chest and sides of the body.


It feeds on fish very actively. It also appreciates insects, larvae, crabs, amphibians and small reptiles.


The couple builds a platform of dry branches on a tree, usually close to water, the eggs are incubated by the couple for 25 to 26 days, and when the chicks are born, which are nesting, the parents provide them with regurgitated food.


Tricolored Heron



It occurs from northeastern Venezuela in the Monagas region and in the Guianas to southern Peru and northeastern Brazilian Amazon, from Marajó Island to the state of Piauí; it also occurs on the island of Trinidad in the Caribbean;


Their nests are platforms built from sticks in mangroves, on the ground, in bushes or low trees. where 2 to 4 eggs are laid.


It inhabits mangroves, coastal areas, estuaries and, eventually, inland waters, not far from the coast. Lives alone.


Little Blue Heron



It measures up to 52 cm in length.


When adult, it has a bluish-gray (slate blue) plumage.


It feeds on small invertebrates and fish.


Live alone or in groups spaced 2 or 3.


Their nests are platforms made of sticks, usually in mangroves, located 1 to 3 m above the waterline.


Lay 2-5 blue eggs.


Present throughout the Brazilian coast, Pantanal and Amazon Basin. Also found from the southern United States and Central America to Colombia, Peru, Chile and Uruguay.



Mangrove Saracura



Very agile, it searches many burrows in a short time with its head down, allowing a good approximation for records without the observer being noticed.


It occurs in the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo and Sergipe.


It is known for inhabiting coastal mangroves and neighboring forests, and one of its Brazilian names is “saracura-da-praia”.


With the reduction of mangroves across the coastal strip, the saracura has resisted even in very small mangrove strips, as long as it finds food.


Already registered in a strip less than 100 meters long and with little vegetation.



North Carcará Hawk



As much as it is a bird of prey, it does not use its main aspects for hunting, such as its powerful claws and its incredibly wide eyes.


It is a bird that is distinguished by its eating habits and the fact that it is highly opportunistic, that is, in addition to eating several things that other birds of prey do not eat, such as the remains of rotten animals and other smaller birds, the Carcará do Norte hawk is it takes advantage of several occasions to eat the game of other animals.


But, as the carcará is a small bird, it cannot, for example, destroy a carrion, leaving this work to the vultures.


It is possible to find this variety of bird of prey from Brazil to Australia.



Seagull



It measures about 50 centimeters in length and weighs between 232 and 374 grams. Lives about 20 years.


It fishes generally during the twilight and at night, flying close to the water and with the lower part of the beak submerged, as if it were plowing, at a speed of about 36 km/h.


Catch fish and shrimp close to the surface without ever dipping your head.


It inhabits beaches of large rivers and lakes, estuaries and beaches along the coast.


It lives in larger groups only during the reproductive period, and in pairs or small groups outside of it.


It is often seen resting on beaches among other species.



Scarlet Ibis



It is a bird from the coast of South America.


Measures about fifty to sixty centimeters, the plumage is of a very strong red color, because of its food based on a crab (Tide Flame Crab) that has a large amount of beta-carotene.


Reproduction is done in colonies. Nests are made high up in mangrove trees. The puppies are born with a dark color and a white chest, becoming completely red after a year and a half of life.


Life Expectancy: Approximately 15 to 20 years.


It appears in large flocks in Salinas between the months of August and January.



Maguari



It measures up to 1.4 m in height with a wingspan of more than 2 m, weighing up to 4.5 kg.


It captures mainly aquatic invertebrates, crustaceans, amphibians, aquatic snakes and fish.


The maguari is one of the most difficult stork species to be seen in a natural environment, because while other storks remain in swamps with little vegetation, this one remains in wet fields and flooded fields, in general humid environments with dense vegetation.


Found in much of South America, it is common in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and restricted to the Amazon and Northeastern Brazil.



Japu



One of the most beautiful sights in the South American forests is the sight of a towering tree occupied by a colony of japus.


The nests, long hanging bags sometimes 1 meter long, sway in the wind.


They make a lot of noise in the forest, with their singular vocalization and ceremonial: the bird leans forward in a graceful movement that ends with the vocalization.


It also issues a harsh call to the group meeting.


The group scours the forest canopies for food, wreaking as much damage as a bunch of monkeys!



Cownose Stingray



With the incidence of more than one type of stingray, it is worth highlighting the behavior one that is very curious, cownose stingray.


When the tide is high, it usually jumps high out of the water, giving an unscheduled spectacle to tourists who are contemplating the sea right in front of our pier.


Of impressive size, it rips through the fishermen's nets that cross its path.



Puffer Fish



Sometimes they “steal” the bait so often that it irritates the fisherman.


Although its meat is appreciated in some regions, the puffer fish is usually a little valued fish due to the toxins present in its viscera, capable of killing an adult human being.


We have already found several species around the pier, but the most common are the Pintado and the Macaw.


When they feel threatened, they swell up like a ball, making it difficult for their predators to act.


Catfish



They are found almost all over the world, but more than half of the known species are native to South America.


Most of these fish have nocturnal habits, living close to the bottom of dark and shallow waters.


They are, for the most part, predators that feed mainly on other fish.


In other European languages such as French, Italian and English they are generally known as "catfish". This name is due to the fact that most of its species have "whiskers" in their jaws.


Tralhoto



Due to the presence of a double structure in the eyes prominent above the head, the hawfish is also popularly known as the four-eyed fish.


The cornea of each eye is divided horizontally into two zones, the top strongly convex and the bottom flat.


This unique feature also divides each pupil into two, the top one adapted for out-of-water vision and the bottom one adapted for underwater vision.



Sardine



They often form large shoals that feed important fisheries.


They present, distributed in their blood system, an important lipid: the omega-3, which is believed to be a "protector" of the heart.


Sardines feed on plankton.


From April to June many shoals enter our Arapepó river (salt water), with attention we can observe the movement of shoals and their predators (larger fish and birds).



Crab



"Siri" came from the Tupi term si'ri, which means "to run, slide, walk backwards", in a reference to the way the crab moves.


Crabs are crustaceans considered generalists or even opportunists, which means that they do not have a preference for food.


Their diet usually includes smaller crustaceans, molluscs and a multitude of other species, usually dead or in the stage of decomposition.


Salinity is an important factor in the distribution of these organisms in the environment.



Mangrove Crab



Its meat is very popular in cooking; its carapace is also used in crafts, cosmetics and animal feed.


It feeds mainly on decaying leaves, fruits and black mangrove seeds.


The depth of their burrows can reach from 60 to 180 cm.


During mating, the species abandons its burrow, a phenomenon known as “walking”, “carnival” or “race” of the crab;


The mating period is between December and May.


Becoming adults at 10 to 12 months of age, it reaches commercial size at 6 to 11 years of age.


Aratu



It inhabits the mangroves and adjacent areas of the tropical and subtropical zones of the Americas, both on its Atlantic and Pacific sides.


On the Atlantic coast it is found from south Florida (USA) to the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.


Aratu fishing has always been a female activity: women in the community would go to the mangrove in the morning and sing traditional songs to lure the crustaceans into a trap (a rod with a string) and put them in cans.


The women returned to the village in the afternoon to prepare the aratu and share it with the family.



Red Aratu



It is a species of medium-sized crab, with a dark carapace and red color on the legs with small white spots, it also receives the names of Maria-mulatto (in the Southeast region of Brazil).


It inhabits the Western Atlantic, which includes Bermuda, Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, Antilles, Guianas and Brazil.


It feeds on decaying animals, fruits and mangrove plants.



Tide Flame Crab



It belongs to a family of crabs. Some authors attribute the function of being bioindicators of healthy habitats.


The burrows are defended by adult males and used during courtship, mating and egg incubation. So much so that internally they are equipped with a terminal chamber.


It is the main food of the scarlet ibis, due to its reddish color it is responsible for the red color of these birds.



Hermit Crab



They protect themselves in abandoned mollusc shells and similar structures that they then transport.


As the animal grows, it must move house. For hermit crabs, finding an empty shell is a matter of life and death.


They feed on dead animals, small crustaceans and eat plant remains, algae and droppings.


The shell retains water, which keeps the gills moist when the crab is uncovered.


They are used by some fishermen as bait.



Sea Snails



The scientific name Turbo Cornutus literally means "horned turban".


Like sea snails, they breathe through gills.


Turbo cornutus can be found in relatively shallow coastal waters. It feeds on various types of algae and is one of the main predators of the oyster, being fought on oyster farms.


It is appreciated as a delicacy in some countries, where in Brazil it is known as "sea escargot".


Vongli



Found in abundance on our marine coast, in the mangrove muddy regions, they are caught by shellfish collectors daily in the winter months.


Widely used in human food.


In Brazil, they are more often known by their Italian name "vongole"


Some species were used by Americans in eastern North America to manufacture wampum, a type of shell coin.



Oyster



Rich in Omega-3, calcium, iron, zinc, proteins and vitamins A, B and D, in addition to being low in calories, Amazon oysters are cultivated on marine farms (the one in Salinas is in the community of Sto Antônio de Urindeua).


The most modern production technologies are used in cultivation, within environmental standards, which guarantee a product with provenance, sustainability, quality and, above all, safety for the consumer.


Considered the best oyster in Brazil, it received the label "Oyster from the Amazon", to commercially differentiate itself from other Brazilian ones.


We hold an annual food festival called Ostrabeer. Ver [...]


Barnacle


Marine crustacean. Barnacles usually choose rocky substrates, but they can also attach themselves to the bottom of boats (where they cause damage) or to other animals (eg whales).


As they are animals that form colonies, their reproduction is constant.


The carapace is heavily calcified.


Turu



TURU is a mollusc that lives inside rotting tree trunks fallen into the mangrove. It can also be called termite, it belongs to the teredinid family.


Turú has a shape similar to that of an earthworm, is gelatinous, has a very hard head with teeth in the mouth. These are called 'valvas', these where the grooves with the animal's teeth are found.


It became part of the meal of many people in Pará and Amazonia. It is a food rich in calcium, iron and has an exotic flavor with aphrodisiac effects.



Iguana



They live in trees, reaching up to 180 cm in length. When young, iguanas have an intense green color, while when larger, they have dark stripes along the body.


They are completely herbivores, generally feeding on the leaves, flowers and fruits of the trees they inhabit.


Raccoon



These animals are found in the Americas.


The raccoon's preferred habitat is woodland close to water and swamps.


During the day, he sleeps in hollow trees, holes in rocks or on the ground.


The raccoon sleeps all day and goes out at night to look for food. It chases its prey in shallow water or on the ground, scratching, turning and examining it closely once its victim is captured. However, he only consumes it if the scent is approved by his refined nose.


Raccoon skin is used in the manufacture of clothing and other products and, thanks to this, its situation is worrying, as the animal is hunted on a large scale, especially in the southern United States.



Corral



Corrals are traps fixed to the ground, made up of wooden poles, nylon mesh, nets and mooring cables, built in regions with calm seas and low slopes.